Sioux Falls Zoologists

"Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent!"

The mirror test is an experiment developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. to determine whether an animal possesses the ability to recognize itself in a mirror. It is the primary indicator of self-awareness in non-human animals and marks entrance to the mirror stage by human children in developmental psychology. Animals that pass the mirror test are: Humans older than 18 mo, Chimpanzees, Bonobos, Orangutans, Gorillas, Bottlenose Dolphins, Orcas (Killer Whales), Elephants, and European Magpies. Others showing signs of self-awareness are Pigs, some Gibbons, Rhesus Macaques, Capuchin Monkeys, some Corvids (Crows & Ravens) and Pigeons w/training. (Sorry Kitty!)

28 Animal Intelligence & Zoology News Articles
for March of 2018

Click on the links below to get the full story from its source

3-23-18 CRISPR immune system lets silkworms defeat viral infections
The CRISPR immune system from bacteria has been engineered into silkworms, allowing them to fight off a virus that plagues the silk industry. A team in China has made genetically engineered silkworms that can fight off a lethal virus. They did it by giving the silkworms CRISPR: an immune system found in many bacteria. The same approach might protect a wide range of animals and plants from viral diseases. The silk industry suffers huge losses because of a disease caused by the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). “It would be incredibly important to have virus-resistant silkworm,” says Fritz Vollrath of the University of Oxford, UK, who studies insect silks and their uses. The key could be CRISPR. It has become famous as the genome-editing tool revolutionising biology, but it evolved in bacteria as a kind of immune system to protect against viruses. In these bacteria, CRISPR proteins first recognise the DNA of invading viruses, using “guide RNAs” that contain a matching sequence. They then cut up the viral DNA, preventing the virus making more copies of itself. Zhanqi Dong of the State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology at Southwest University in Chongqing, China, and his colleagues have given silkworms the genes for the CRISPR Cas9 protein, along with guide RNAs targeting BmNPV sequences. They then exposed silkworms to the virus to test their resistance.

3-22-18 How bees defend against some controversial insecticides
Researchers have discovered enzymes that can help resist some neonicotinoids. Honeybees and bumblebees have a way to resist toxic compounds in some widely used insecticides. These bees make enzymes that help the insects break down a type of neonicotinoid called thiacloprid, scientists report March 22 in Current Biology. Neonicotinoids have been linked to negative effects on bee health, such as difficulty reproducing in honeybees (SN: 7/26/16, p 16). But bees respond to different types of the insecticides in various ways. This finding could help scientists design versions of neonicotinoids that are less harmful to bees, the researchers say. Such work could have broad ramifications, says study coauthor Chris Bass, an applied entomologist at the University of Exeter in England. “Bees are hugely important to the pollination of crops and wild flowers and biodiversity in general.” Neonicotinoids are typically coated on seeds such as corn and sometimes sprayed on crops to protect the plants from insect pests. The chemicals are effective, but their use has been suspected to be involved in worrisome declines in numbers of wild pollinators (SN Online: 4/5/12).

3-22-18 Heavy metal poisoning may be changing birds’ personalities
Great tits exposed to toxic metals like cadmium and lead alter their behaviour, becoming less exploratory and more cautious, suggesting their personalities have been reshaped. Exposure to toxic metals may alter the personalities of songbirds. Great tits may be less curious and unwilling to explore new places if their habitat is contaminated with heavy metals. Great tits (Parus major) have personalities. That means each bird consistently behaves in certain ways, while others consistently behave differently. For example, some great tits are bolder than others when it comes to exploring new places. Andrea Grunst at the University of Antwerp, Belgium, and her colleagues examined whether exposure to heavy metals can alter these behavioural traits. They studied five populations of great tits living outside Antwerp, near a smelter and metal refinery known for emitting toxic metals like cadmium and lead. The five sites were at varying distances from the plant, ranging from zero to 8.5 kilometres. The team captured a total of 249 great tits and brought them to a lab. There the birds were placed in a new environment with artificial trees, to see how boldly they explored it. The closer the birds lived to the smelter, the slower they were to explore the novel surrounding.

3-22-18 Earwigs take origami to extremes to fold their wings
The insects’ springy wing joints are inspiring robotics design. To quickly unfurl and refold their wings, earwigs stretch the rules of origami. Yes, those garden pests that scurry out from under overturned flowerpots can also fly. Because earwigs spend most of their time underground and only occasionally take to the air, they pack their wings into packages with a surface area more than 10 times smaller than when unfurled, using an origami-like series of folds. Springy wing joints let the insects bypass some of the mathematical constraints that normally limit the way a rigid two-dimensional material can be folded, researchers report March 23 in Science. Earwig wings’ folding pattern should be impossible according to mathematical equations that predict the three-dimensional designs that can be made by folding a two-dimensional material like a sheet of paper, says study coauthor Andres Arrieta, a mechanical engineer at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind. Origami theory assumes that the material being folded is perfectly rigid. But the joints of earwigs’ wings — where creases form — are rich in a rubbery polymer called resilin. This little bit of stretch lets earwig wings do what a regular origami structure can’t: lock into two different conformations, open or folded up, and transition between the two.

3-22-18 A very pregnant female ray had to fend off four courting males
Giant devil rays have been filmed courting for the first time, and it turns out the males do not even wait for the females to give birth. For the first time, giant devil rays have been filmed courting in the waters of New Zealand. It seems males start pursuing females while they are still pregnant. In March 2017, recreational fisherman Scott Tindale of the International Game Fish Association in Albany saw a heavily pregnant female giant devil ray (Mobula mobular) being pursued by four mature males. The female swam ahead of the males and repeatedly changed direction, as if trying to throw them off. She mostly swam at or near the surface, preventing the males from getting on top of her. Tindale has now described the incident with biologist Clinton Duffy of the Auckland War Memorial Museum in New Zealand. “She must have been close to giving birth, judging by the size of her,” says Duffy. This suggests mating happens almost immediately after birth. “Many sharks and rays are thought to have a resting period between pregnancies, but this behaviour suggests that is not the case in giant devil rays.” Such rapid mating is not unheard of, says Guy Stevens at the Manta Trust in Dorchester, UK. Female reef manta rays mate within hours or days of giving birth, and may quickly become pregnant again. “This was documented with a female manta in captivity, where food is always plentiful and energy expenditure is minimal, and I see it in the wild quite a lot as well.”

3-22-18 How oral vaccines could save Ethiopian wolves from extinction
One-Health focused mass vaccination programs could go wild in 2018. Deep in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia, wildlife workers trek up above 9,800 feet to save some of the world’s most rare carnivores, Ethiopian wolves. “It’s cold, tough work,” says Eric Bedin, who leads the field monitoring team in its uphill battle. In this sparse, sometimes snowy landscape, the lanky and ginger-colored wolves (Canis simensis) reign as the region’s apex predators. Yet the combined threats of rabies, canine distemper and habitat reduction have the animals cornered. Bedin and his colleagues, traveling by horse and on foot through dramatically shifting temperatures and weather, track these solitary hunters for weeks at a time. Team members know every wolf in most packs in these mountains. The team has vaccinated some wolves against rabies, only to have hopes dashed when the animals died of distemper months later. “These guys work their asses off to protect these wolves,” says Claudio Sillero, a conservation biologist at the University of Oxford who heads up the Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme, of which the field monitoring team is an integral part. Down the line, humans stand to benefit from all this work too.

3-21-18 Medicine for sick koalas turns out to actually kill them
Koalas are often given antibiotics to treat a lethal strain of chlamydia, but the medicines often kill the koalas by wiping out friendly bacteria in their guts. Curing chlamydia in koalas can be just as deadly as the disease itself, and now we know why. In humans, chlamydia is a common infection and can cause reproductive health issues. But for koalas it is more serious: the strain that infects them is often lethal. Koala chlamydia is transmitted during sex and, more commonly, through pap: a faecal product that females use to wean their joeys. A vaccine is in the works but it’s not ready yet. So for now the best option seems to be antibiotics to kill the infection. But koalas often suffer serious side effects from antibiotics, so Katherine Dahlhausen at the University of California Davis and her colleagues tried to find out why. They gathered faecal samples from sick koalas and scanned them to see what microorganisms were living in them. Like humans many other animals, koalas have “friendly bacteria” living in their guts that help them digest food. The team found that antibiotics had little effect on most of the friendly bacteria, but one species was often completely wiped out: Lonepinella koalarum. This species is crucial because it breaks down harmful chemicals called tannins, allowing the koalas to digest the tough eucalyptus leaves that make up almost all of their diet. Without L. koalarum to detox the tannin, the koalas seem to literally starve to death. The research is preliminary, says Dahlhausen, so other gut bacteria may also be involved.

3-20-18 Northern white rhino: Last male Sudan dies in Kenya
The world's last surviving male northern white rhino has died after months of poor health, his carers say. Sudan, who was 45, lived at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. He was put to sleep on Monday after age-related complications worsened significantly. His death leaves only two females - his daughter and granddaughter - of the subspecies alive in the world. Hope for preserving the northern white rhino now lies in developing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques. "His death is a cruel symbol of human disregard for nature and it saddened everyone who knew him," said Jan Stejskal, an official at Dvur Kralove Zoo in the Czech Republic, where Sudan had lived until 2009. "But we should not give up," he added in quotes carried by AFP news agency. "We must take advantage of the unique situation in which cellular technologies are utilised for conservation of critically endangered species. It may sound unbelievable, but thanks to the newly developed techniques even Sudan could still have an offspring." Rhinoceroses - of which there are five species - are the second-largest land mammal after elephants. The white rhinoceros consists of two sub-species: the southern white rhino and the much rarer and critically endangered northern white rhino. (Webmaster's comment: Another species bits the dust thanks to 7.6 billion people.)

3-20-18 There’s no point reviving the northern white rhino – yet
With Sudan, the last male northern white rhino, dead it is natural to ask if we can bring these animals back with biotechnology - but there is nowhere for them to live. The last male northern white rhino has died. Known as Sudan, he was put down on Monday after months of poor health. He was 45 years old. Sudan’s death means there are only two northern white rhinos left on the planet. Both are females, so cannot breed. It would seem the species is doomed to extinction. But perhaps we could bring them back. Plans are afoot to create new northern white rhinos from samples of stored tissue kept in freezers.The trouble is, this is almost entirely pointless. Northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) are one of two subspecies of the white rhinoceros. The other subspecies is the southern white rhino (C. simum simum), which lives in southern Africa and is doing much better, with a population of around 20,000. The plan to save northern white rhinos involves creating embryos using egg cells from the remaining females and stored sperm from the last few males. There is also a more technically challenging proposal to take other stored tissue and change it into stem cells, which can then make both sperm and eggs. These embryos would be implanted in southern white rhinos, as the remaining two northern white rhinos are too vulnerable to risk on an experimental pregnancy. There are plenty of potential pitfalls for this scheme. Much of the technology is unproven, so the failure rate will be high. That also makes it expensive. And crucially, we only have tissue samples from a handful of northern white rhinos, so the resulting population would have little genetic diversity – leaving them vulnerable to disease.

3-15-18 Lab-grown pet food promises a wholesome vegan lifestyle for dogs
Fungi grown in bioreactors might give dogs a vegan lifestyle, but we don’t know if it will be a healthy one. Vegan numbers are on the rise. To try to encourage everyone and their dog to join the movement, a startup in California are growing fungus-based dog food in bioreactors. Wild Earth touts its vegan food as ‘clean protein’ that has all the nutrients a dog needs, hoping to appeal to people concerned about the significant carbon footprint of pet food, as well as the use of low-quality animal byproducts. The company makes the unusual food by pumping sugar into a bioreactor, a large cylindrical apparatus for growing fungi. This allows their fast-growing fungus called Aspergillus oryzae to thrive, with its cells dividing every 2 to 4 hours. Technicians then strain the solution and bake the result into dog pellets. Aspergillus oryzae is the same fungus used to make fermented foods like sake, miso soup, and soy sauce. Both dogs and human owners appear to have enjoyed eating Wild Earth’s product, which has a savory “umami” flavor, says CEO Ryan Bethencourt. “It kind of looks like tuna,” he says. If America’s 180 million domestic pets were a sovereign nation, they would rank fifth in the world in global meat consumption, producing as much as 64 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. Switching to lab-grown food could have a dramatic effect, with estimates ranging between a 15 per cent and 90 per cent overall decrease.

3-15-18 These searing hot chilli peppers are in danger thanks to snakes
The donne’ sali chilli is a major feature of the cuisine of the Mariana Islands, but thanks to an invasive snake this pepper faces an uncertain future. The donne’ sali chilli is the hottest pepper in the West Pacific’s Mariana Islands. It features prominently in the local cuisine and is beloved by the local people. But the pepper is facing an unexpected danger: snakes. The donne’ sali chilli is a variant of Capsicum frutescens, the species that also gives us Tabasco chilli. It was probably introduced to the Mariana Islands in the 17th century. Nowadays it grows wild in the understory. Birds were thought to be the main consumers of the chilli’s fruits, since they don’t feel its spicy capsaicin compounds. Indeed, the name donne’ sali is an indigenous Chamorro term referring to the “sali bird” or Micronesian starling (Aplonis opaca). But nobody had actually tested this, until Monika Egerer of the University of California, Santa Cruz went to the Marianas to investigate. Egerer and her team began by hunting down wild donne’ sali plants on the archipelago. They found few on the island of Guam, but many on Tinian and Saipan. Camera footage of the plants on Saipan revealed that sali birds were indeed the main consumers. What’s more, the birds help disperse the plants’ seeds. In captive feeding experiments, seeds that had been eaten and excreted sprouted sooner and more often than those from whole fruits. The results help explain the near absence of donne’ sali on Guam. The island’s native forest birds have been almost wiped out by invasive brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis). The snakes have since been sighted on Rota and Tinian, and there may be a small population on Saipan.

3-14-18 Two herbivores gang up and silence a plant’s cries for help
Caterpillar presence mutes broccoli's production of chemicals that attract aphid parasitoids, allowing both pests to wreak havoc. APHIDS and caterpillars both like to eat broccoli. Aphids suck the plant’s juices, and caterpillars chew the leaves, but they are still competing to extract the most nutrients. Surprisingly, though, caterpillars can benefit aphids. Carmen Blubaugh at Clemson University in South Carolina found that when caterpillars also snack on plants infested by aphids, the number of parasitoid wasps that attack the aphids decreases (Ecology, “The plant uses a different toolkit to defend against a caterpillar,” she says. When set on by aphids, the plant produces chemicals to attract wasps that parasitise the aphid – but if caterpillars join in, the plant doesn’t have the resources to summon wasps.

3-13-18 Why sharks like it hot - but not too hot
Scientists have calculated the water temperature at which tiger sharks are most active and abundant. They say the sharks, which are second only to great whites in attacking people, prefer a balmy 22C. Shark populations may shift range as the oceans heat up, bringing them into greater conflict with humans, according to the scientific study. For instance, tiger sharks may move into waters off Sydney in both winter and summer months. Dr Nicholas Payne of Queen's University Belfast and the University of Roehampton led the research. "Our study suggests that 22 degrees is not too cold for the animals and it's not too hot for them," he said. "It's about right in terms of their optimal preference for temperature." Most sharks are cold blooded. Their body temperatures match the temperature of the water around them. The research, reported in the journal Global Change Biology, could lead to new ways to predict when and where tiger shark attacks might happen.

3-12-18 Daft male spiders prefer females who are more likely to eat them
Female brown widow spiders become less fertile as they age, and more likely to kill and eat their mates – yet males still prefer them over younger females. Female brown widow spiders get grumpy in their old age. They demand more courtship displays from males, and are more likely to eat the suitor. Despite that, given the choice males will pursue them instead of younger, more fertile females who won’t eat them. For male brown widow spiders (Latrodectus geometricus), sex can be lethal. Like other spiders, such as black widows, females sometimes kill and devour males after sex. This is especially true of older females. A team led by Ally Harari of the Agricultural Research Organization near Tel-Aviv, Israel, introduced virgin males to adolescent females, young adult females and older adult females. All were able to reproduce. 57 per cent of males that mated with older females were cannibalised, as were 48 per cent of those that mated with young adults, but adolescent females never ate their partners. Nevertheless, males courted older females for longer than they did young females, and spent hardly any time wooing adolescents. Sometimes a male brown widow stops copulating and performs a somersault, pushing his abdomen into the female’s mouth. This can get him eaten. Harari found males almost always somersaulted when mating with older females, but rarely did when mating with adolescents.

3-12-18 Feed the birds, but be aware of risks, say wildlife experts
Scientists are warning of the risks of wild birds spreading diseases when they gather at feeders in gardens. Experts led by Zoological Society of London say people should continue to feed birds, especially in winter, but should be aware of the risks. If birds look sick, food should be withdrawn temporarily, they say. The review of 25 years' worth of data identified emerging threats to garden birds. Finches, doves and pigeons are vulnerable to a parasite infection. Meanwhile, a form of bird pox is becoming more common, causing warty-like lumps on the bodies of great tits and other birds. Other disease threats, such as salmonella, appear to be declining. "Our study shows how three of the most common diseases that affect British garden birds have changed both dramatically and unpredictably over the past decade, both in terms of the species they affect and their patterns of occurrence," said Dr Becki Lawson from ZSL's Institute of Zoology. Common signs that a wild bird is ill include unusually fluffed-up plumage and lethargy. Diseases can be spread through droppings or regurgitated food around bird feeders. Finding out more about the changing pattern of diseases will help to ensure that garden birds can be fed safely, say the researchers. ZSL, working with experts from the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), say people who notice sick birds should take practical steps to minimise risks:

  1. Report their observations to the Garden Wildlife Health Project
  2. Seek advice from a vet
  3. Withdraw food for a while to let birds disperse over a wider area
  4. Feed birds in moderation, clean bird feeders regularly, and rotate feeding sites.

3-8-18 Elephant parts to U.S.
The Trump administration has quietly scrapped the ban on importing body parts of African elephants and other animals hunted for sport. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said last fall it would lift an Obama-era ban on the import of lion and elephant trophies. But after an outcry, President Trump intervened for the elephants, tweeting that he was unlikely to be convinced that “this horror show in any way helps conservation.” On March 1, however, U.S. Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke—an avid hunter who had the arcade game Big Buck Hunter Pro installed in the Interior Department’s cafeteria—ordered that importation be allowed. Trump’s sons Eric and Donald Trump Jr. are big-game hunters; photos from a 2011 safari to Zimbabwe show Eric with a dead leopard and Donald Jr. holding up the severed tail of a dead elephant.

3-8-18 Leopards that live in cities are protecting people from rabies
Wild leopards wander into the Indian city of Mumbai to prey on feral dogs – and in doing so they stop the dogs biting people and passing on the rabies virus. When leopards stray into a city, people often fear them because of the danger they pose. But it turns out these big cats could be valuable neighbours: by preying on feral dogs in Mumbai, they are reducing the risk of people catching rabies. About 20,000 people die of rabies in India every year. Feral dogs are the main source, as they bite people and pass on the rabies virus. Christopher O’Bryan and Alexander Braczkowski at the University of Queensland and their colleagues compiled existing data on the diet of leopards living in Sanjay Gandhi National Park, on the edges of Mumbai. They found that 40 per cent of the average leopard’s diet consists of feral dogs. All told, the 35 leopards in the park probably eat 1,500 dogs per year. Given how often the dogs bite people and how many of them have rabies, the leopards’ kills are preventing about 1,000 bite incidents per year – and 90 potential rabies cases. “This study is a striking example of a large carnivorous animal providing a direct benefit to humans,” says O’Bryan.

3-7-18 A deadly predator could save the UK’s threatened red squirrels
Britain’s native red squirrels have been retreating for decades in the face of invasive grey squirrels, but predators called pine martens could help save them. YOUR enemy’s enemy is your friend. The UK’s endangered red squirrels are getting an unexpected helping hand – from predators that kill the grey squirrels that threaten them. Grey squirrels are native to North America. They got settled in the UK in the 19th century after being brought over by a silk manufacturer, and soon began to suppress the native red squirrels. They are bigger, bolder and eat a more varied diet, and also carry a virus deadly to red squirrels. Today, they have driven red squirrels out of much of the UK – although in Europe the red squirrels remain widespread. It has been suggested that predators called pine martens might help restore the UK’s red squirrels, by driving down grey squirrel populations. Pine martens look like a cross between an otter and a weasel. They were almost wiped out in the UK, but have been recovering since the 1970s. Emma Sheehy at the University of Aberdeen, UK, and her colleagues studied the populations of all three animals in Scotland during 2016. They enticed pine martens and squirrels to feeders and recorded their numbers, using DNA analysis and cameras. This revealed how often red and grey squirrels encountered pine martens, and how this affected them.

3-7-18 Red squirrel numbers boosted by predator
The pine marten has emerged as an unlikely ally for the beleaguered native red squirrel in its battle with the grey squirrel. This is according to scientists at the University of Aberdeen, who carried out an in-depth forensic study of the relationship between the three species. The pine marten is a predator of the reds, but in areas where it thrives, the number of grey squirrels reduces. The findings are published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The journal study suggests that the pine martens reverse the "typical relationship" between red and grey squirrels, where the red always loses out, according to lead researcher Dr Emma Sheehy. "Where pine marten activity is high, grey squirrel populations are actually heavily suppressed. And that gives the competitive advantage to red squirrels," she said. "So you see lots of red squirrels and you see them coming back into areas where they hadn't been for quite some time."

3-6-18 Drones reveal huge colonies of 1.5 million penguins on islands
Two massive colonies of Adélie penguins have been discovered on the Danger Islands off the coast of Antarctica, bringing the global population to 8 million. TWO huge colonies of Adélie penguins have been discovered hiding in plain sight on Antarctic islands. Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were known to nest on the Danger Islands, near the tip of the west Antarctic Peninsula. But only in 2014 did satellite images reveal large areas stained with guano. A team led by Heather Lynch of Stony Brook University in New York has now surveyed the birds, using drones specially adapted for the cold. They found 1.5 million Adélie penguins, taking the total number in the world to 8 million (Scientific Reports, There were also smaller colonies of gentoo and chinstrap penguins. The global population of Adélie penguins was already increasing, for unknown reasons. However, numbers have fallen around the west Antarctic Peninsula, which has warmed rapidly in recent decades because of climate change. An east Antarctic colony, on Petrel Island, has suffered two bad breeding seasons in the last decade. (Webmaster's comment: Animal populations in a few millions don't impress me. They need to be in the tens if not hundreds of millions. Remember they are competing with 7 billion of us with billions more to come. We are simply overwheming all other life by our numbers!)

3-6-18 Monarch butterfly numbers down for second year in Mexico
The population of monarch butterflies in Mexico has gone down for the second consecutive year, government officials say. In the autumn, the orange and black butterflies migrate from Canada and the US to central Mexico, where they hibernate in pine and fir trees. Every year, scientists measure the area in which the monarchs cluster. Mexico's Commissioner for Protected Areas Alejandro del Mazo said numbers had diminished by 14.8% this winter. Speaking at a news conference in Mexico City, officials said nine colonies of monarch butterflies had been recorded in Mexico in the 2017/2018 winter months, down from 13 last year. Mr del Mazo said that "extreme meteorological events" could be a leading cause in the decline of the numbers of Monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. World Wildlife Fund's Mexico Director Jorge Rickards said a particularly busy hurricane season across the insects' migration route, which stretches almost 5,000km (3,100 miles) from Canada to Mexico, could be a factor. "These climate phenomena without a doubt have an impact on the migration," he said. Monarchs are one of the few insects to migrate such a vast distance and scientists recently found that they use a kind of internal solar compass to guide them. While the area in which the monarch butterflies hibernate in central Mexico went up in the winter of 2015/16, the overall trend for the past two decades has been a downward one. In 1996/97 the butterflies could be found in about 18 hectares of forest in the states of Mexico and Michoacán. This past winter, only 2.48 hectares had monarch colonies.

3-6-18 In a pack hunt, it’s every goatfish for itself
Despite being selfish, these fish catch prey better together than alone. The only fish known to hunt with wolf pack moves may not be true team players, just lemon-yellow me-firsts. Yellow saddle goatfish (Parupeneus cyclostomus) do more than school together as they dart over Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Like wolves, the goatfish take different roles in a pursuit. One or two fish may rush straight toward prey as the others shoot to the sides, blocking escape. “They look harmless, but they’re vicious predators,” says Redouan Bshary of the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. “That’s why it’s fun to follow them — there’s always action.” He and his colleagues have documented other fishy hunting partnerships, such as groupers pairing with crevice-wriggling moray eels. Goatfish collaborate with their own species, though probably not their close kin, Bshary’s team has reported. The fish chase other small, fast reef fish, “a little bit like Ultimate Frisbee,” says Dominique Roche, in Bshary’s lab. “It’s a game of sprinting and stopping.” The bright yellow goatfish dart into a reef “like a lightning flash.”

3-5-18 Tree loss pushing beetles to the brink
The loss of trees across Europe is pushing beetles to the brink of extinction, according to a new report. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature assessed the status of 700 European beetles that live in old and hollowed wood. Almost a fifth (18%) are at risk of extinction due to the decline of ancient trees, the European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles report found. This puts them among the most threatened insect groups in Europe. Saproxylic beetles play a role in natural processes, such as decomposition and the recycling of nutrients. They also provide an important food source for birds and mammals and some are involved in pollination. "Some beetle species require old trees that need hundreds of years to grow, so conservation efforts need to focus on long-term strategies to protect old trees across different landscapes in Europe, to ensure that the vital ecosystem services provided by these beetles continue," said Jane Smart, director of the IUCN Global Species Programme. Logging, tree loss and wood harvesting all contribute to the loss of habitat for the beetles, said the IUCN. Other major threats include urbanisation and tourism development, and an increase in wildfires in the Mediterranean region. Conservation efforts need to focus on long-term strategies to protect old trees and deadwood across forests, pastureland, orchards and urban areas, the report recommended. It said there should be inventories of ancient and veteran trees for each European country, to ensure these trees are protected in all landscapes. "It is critical for the Common Agricultural Policy to promote the appropriate management of wood pasture habitats containing veteran trees across Europe," said Luc Bas, director of the IUCN European Regional Office.

3-2-18 Fish called ‘sarcastic fringehead’ has a wider mouth than body
Sarcastic fringeheads have a truly spectacular threat display: they open their mouths until they’re gaping wide, displaying two rows of teeth and fluorescent cheeks. Sarcastic fringeheads have a stronger temper than your average fish, but it isn’t a sharp tongue that you have to look out for: it’s their gaping, fluorescent mouth. When threatened by other males, these fish can open their mouths about as large as their entire head, displaying an outer and inner row of teeth. It’s all an effort to show other fringeheads that “I’m bigger than you and you shouldn’t come into my area,” says Watchaparong Hongjamrassilp at the University of California Los Angeles. While working at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California, Hongjamrassilp studied how the fringeheads can open their mouths so wide. Sarcastic fringeheads are about 20 to 30 centimetres long, with very large heads in proportion to their bodies. They may have been named for the sardonic expression they appear to have if you encounter them with their mouths closed.

3-2-18 Penguin supercolony discovered in Antarctica
It was the guano that gave the birds away. On an expedition to an icy island chain off the Antarctic Peninsula’s northern tip, researchers discovered a massive supercolony of more than 1.5 million Adélie penguins, according to a study published March 2 in Scientific Reports. Scientists had known of an Adélie penguin colony (Pygoscelis adeliae) in these Danger Islands, but satellite images revealed more guano on the rocky islands than could be explained by the colony’s expected numbers. Even though the tiny island chain is only about 10 kilometers across, researchers hadn’t realized the extent of the penguin population, says study coauthor Heather Lynch, an ecologist at Stony Brook University in New York. “In the Antarctic, distances are so vast, something major could be just around the corner and you wouldn’t know.”

3-2-18 Penguin super-colony spotted from space
Scientists have stumbled across a huge group of previously unknown Adélie penguins on the most northerly point of the Antarctic Peninsula. Numbering more than 1.5 million birds, they were first noticed when great patches of their poo, or guano, showed up in pictures taken from space. The animals are crammed on to a rocky archipelago called the Danger Islands. The researchers, who detail the discovery in the journal Scientific Reports, say it is a total surprise. "It's a classic case of finding something where no-one really looked! The Danger Islands are hard to reach, so people didn't really try that hard," team-member Dr Tom Hart from Oxford University, UK, told BBC News. The scientists used an algorithm to search images from the American Landsat spacecraft for sites of possible penguin activity. Landsat does not return especially high-resolution pictures and so when the system flagged potential colonies, they had to be followed up with much sharper pictures for confirmation. "And the sheer size of what we were looking at took our breath away," said Dr Heather Lynch from Stony Brook University, New York. "We thought, 'Wow! If what we're seeing is true, these are going to be some of the largest Adélie penguin colonies in the world, and it's going to be well worth our while sending in an expedition to count them properly."

3-2-18 A weird underground plant has been rediscovered after 151 years
A species of subterranean plant was only seen once, in 1866, and was assumed to be extinct – until researchers stumbled across living specimens in Borneo. A peculiar plant has been found in the rainforests of Borneo after having been lost for over 150 years. Thismia neptunis was discovered in 1866 by the Italian botanist Odoardo Beccari in the Gunung Matang massif in western Sarawak, Malaysia. He formally described it a few years later. There are no records of anyone seeing it since, so it was assumed extinct. But in January 2017, Michal Sochor of the Crop Research Institute in Olomouc, Czech Republic and his colleagues found a few specimens in the same area and photographed them for the first time. T. neptunis belongs to a group of plants that shun the light. Instead they live underground and steal food from fungi. This behaviour has evolved independently about 40 times. There are around 500 species of “underground plant”, says Vincent Merckx of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in the Netherlands, who studies these “mycoheterotrophs”. They have lost their leaves and chlorophyll, and cannot photosynthesize like normal green plants. “They completely rely on fungi,” Merckx says.

3-1-18 It’s official: Termites are just cockroaches with a fancy social life
Reordering demotes one infamous insect group to being a mere branch of an equally infamous one. Termites are the new cockroach. Literally. The Entomological Society of America is updating its master list of insect names to reflect decades of genetic and other evidence that termites belong in the cockroach order, called Blattodea. As of February 15, “it’s official that termites no longer have their own order,” says Mike Merchant of Texas A&M University in College Station, chair of the organization’s common names committee. Now all termites on the list are being recategorized. The demotion brings to mind Pluto getting kicked off the roster of planets, says termite biologist Paul Eggleton of the Natural History Museum in London. He does not, however, expect a galactic outpouring of heartbreak and protest over the termite downgrade. Among specialists, discussions of termites as a form of roaches go back at least to 1934, when researchers reported that several groups of microbes that digest wood in termite guts live in some wood-eating cockroaches too. Once biologists figured out how to use DNA to work out genealogical relationships, evidence began to grow that termites had evolved as a branch on the many-limbed family tree of cockroaches. In 2007, Eggleton and two museum colleagues used genetic evidence from an unusually broad sampling of species to publish a new tree of these insects (SN: 5/19/07, p. 318). Titled “Death of an order,” the study placed termites on the tree near a Cryptocercus cockroach.

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28 Animal Intelligence & Zoology News Articles
for March of 2018

Animal Intelligence News Articles for February of 2018